Tools required :- Spade / shovel, spot board and bucket.
Safety tip :- Bags of sand, cement and aggregate are heavy so care should be taken when lifting them, squat down and gripping the bag lift the weight with your legs rather than your back. Use gloves as cement can irritate and burn skin.
To mix concrete or mortar by hand you will first need a spot board, (a piece of wood board approximately 3 ft square) placed on the ground, a spade or shovel, the ingredients for the mix and water.
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Use the spade to place the sand, cement and aggregate if required on to the board in the ratio you need for your mix, eg four sand and one cement,(4 : 1 ) mix it all together thoroughly with the spade and pile it in the centre of the board. Make a hole in the centre of the pile with your spade and then add some water, push the sides of the mix into the water and mix with the spade, repeat this until the mix is the correct constituency you require and it has a consistent colour throughout. The mix is now ready to use.
If you are unsure how much water to add to the dry mix, add a little at a time until you have the required amount, after doing one or two mixes you will have a rough idea of how much to add each time.